What's New and Beneficial About Tempeh
A recent study from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia has provided us with some fascinating results about the
bioavailability of calcium from Tempeh.
In this study involving postmenopausal women, calcium from tempeh was determined to be as equally well absorbed as calcium from cow's milk.
Due to the higher concentrations of calcium in cow's milk versusTempeh, however, four servings
of Tempeh were needed to bring the total amount of calcium absorbed from tempeh up to the same
level as the total amount of calcium absorbed from fresh cow's milk.
Still, the excellent bioavailability of calcium from tempeh was an important research finding in this study,since many women (as well as men) would benefit from increased intake of calcium from non-dairy foods, and tempeh clearly performed very well as a calcium source in this study.
Tempeh is a food made from soybeans. While not as popular in the West as Tofu, it is still a
great example of how a simple food like soybeans can be woven into human food traditions in a way
that is natural, inexpensive, and nourishing.
GI: very low
vitamin B2 31%
Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Tempeh can be found in the Food Rating System Chart at the end of the article bellow.
The InDepth Nutritional Profile for Tempeh, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.
How to Select and Store
Tips for Preparing and Cooking
How to Enjoy
We provide an indepth Tempeh nutrient profile,one of the most important things to remember about
Tempeh is their basic whole food nature.
The vast majority of soy consumed in the world comes from a highly processed form of soy.
The conventional soybeans consumed have been genetically engineered,GMO, cracked, dehulled,
crushed, and subjected to solvent extraction(Hexane, a deriavate from petrol, in the Industry
hexanes are used to in the formulation of glues for shoes, leather products and roofing.
Also used to extract cooking oils from soy, corn, canola, sunflower etc...to separate their oils from the rest of the bean or seeds in the refining process.
What's left behind after oil extraction (defatted soy flour) is then further processed into animal feed, or
processed to produce a protein concentrate or a protein isolate used by bodybuilders, athetes and
people who consume plant-based protein supplements.
The isolate can be used as an ingredient in low fat soymilk, and the concentrate can be further
processed (extruded) to form a texturized soy protein for use in meat analog products
(like soy burgers).
The new nickname given to conventional texturized soybean is "garbage food", although it might sound upsetting for vegans, and plant food supporters we agree with this definition, rather correct considering the toxic damage caused by the chemical and mechanical processing of this wonderful bean sort.
The difference in commercial and Organic Tempeh production can be very big, the use of conventional GMO soybean, crushed by heavy punch machines, chlorinated tap water, refined salt, chemical food preservatives or the one made with Stone Mill ground Organic soybean, alkaline spring water, sea salt, solely from the cake of the soybeans after extracting the milk, this cake is called "Okara" in Japanese, it is simply fermented with a traditional probiotic bacteria starter:
Making tempeh is a process of controlled fermentation. Here at "EFE" we first let the beans soak in Alkaline water for over 10 hours, then the beans are ground adding more alkaline water through a stone mill to produce the Soy milk,
The beans are then inoculated with a starter culture that contains Rhizopus mold spores (either Rhizopus oligosporus or Rhizopus oryzae), and then fermented at a warm temperature, as the mycelium grows, it binds the beans into a dense, white cake.
Tempeh is produced with significantly less processing than most lowfat soymilks and soy burgers,
and they are soy foods that are much closer to a "whole foods" category than soy protein isolates
While there is existing research that indicates the possibility of certain health risks from consumption of soy, studies show that a significant amount of these possible health risks involve consumption of soy in
a highly processed form (like soy protein isolate or soy protein concentrate) rather than a whole food
By contrast, we view Tempeh as a form of soy that is closer to soy in its whole food form.
From a health benefits standpoint, we also like the fermented nature of tempeh.
Fermentation increases the digestibility of soy (especially its proteins), nutrient absorption from soy (including absorption of phytonutrient isoflavones like genistein and daidzein), and the concentration of bioactive peptides (formed during the breakdown of soy proteins during fermentation).
Overall Nutrient Benefits
According to recent research analysis of the U.S. population and dietary practices within this
population, U.S. adults would increase their intake of folate, vitamin K, calcium, magnesium, iron
and fiber if they replaced their meat and dairy intake with soy, including Tempeh.
Replacing meat and dairy with tempeh and other soy products would also lower their total cholesterol intake by about 125 milligrams per day and their saturated fat by
about 2.4 grams per day
These nutritional changes, in turn, would lower their risk of several chronic diseases,
including cardiovascular diseases.
Soy foods typically contain a wide variety of well studied phytonutrients.
In the case of fermented soy foods like tempeh these phytonutrients can become more concentrated
and more bioavailable as well. Below is a list of some key phytonutrients that can be found in tempeh
and other soy foods.
Flavonoids and Isoflavonoids
Proteins and Peptides
soyasaponins (group A and group B)
Before concluding this phytonutrient section, we think it's important to point out one nutrient-related aspect of soy processing. Phytates are substances found in soybeans (and many other foods)
that can lessen the absorption of certain nutrients, especially minerals.
Soy products in general (including products that are minimally processed) contain 1.43.0% phytates.
Soy isolates (commonly used production of low fat soy milk) usually contain a minimum
of 2.89% phytates, and soy concentrates can contain up to 4.9% phytates.
Forms of soy that are more whole foodbased like tempeh will do a better job of lowering your phytate
exposure than highly processed forms of soy like soy protein concentrates or isolates.
Cardiovascular Benefits of Tempeh
We've seen very few studies of soy and cardiovascular health that are specific to tempeh. However, we do know that whole food soy products provide better cardiovascular support than dietary supplements containing isolated soy components (like purified isoflavones).
We also know that fermented soy foods like tempeh have more bioactive peptides than non-fermented soy foods. (Peptides are smaller breakdown parts of proteins.)
In the case of fermented soy foods, two key storage proteins—glycinin and conglycinin—are broken down by molds, yeasts, and bacteria into peptide fragments that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and blood pressure-lowering properties. ]
For example, some of the peptides found in tempeh inhibit angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) and are therefore classified as "ACE inhibitors." When this enzyme is inhibited, it is often easier for the cardiovascular system to regulate blood pressure. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of soy peptides found in fermented soy foods can help protect the blood vessels from oxidative and inflammatory damage.
Intake of soy foods (especially whole soy foods) has been associated with improved levels of blood fats in numerous research studies. However, even in the case of whole soy foods, we would not describe this improvement of blood fat levels as being "strong." A better word would be "moderate." The most consistent effect of soybean intake on blood fats has been a moderate lowering of LDL cholesterol.
Some studies show other positive impacts on blood fats, like the lowering of triglycerides and total cholesterol or the raising of HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol). However, these additional blood fat results have not been confirmed in all studies.
Soyasaponins are soy phytonutrients that have been especially interesting to researchers with respect to their cardiovascular benefits. There is some evidence, mostly in animal studies, that soya
saponins can lessen the rate of lipid peroxidation in blood vessels, lessen absorption of cholesterol from the GI tract, and increase excretion of fecal bile acids.
All of these events would be expected to contribute to a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Soyasaponins are provided in many forms of soy, but fermentation of soy has been shown to increase their concentration. Increased levels of soyasaponins in fermented soy foods like tempeh are likely to play a role in the better track record of fermented (versus non-fermented) soy foods in the area of cardiovascular benefits.
Cancer Prevention Benefits
The area of cancer prevention is a controversial area of health research on soybeans. Many studies provide us with evidence that supports the role of whole soy foods in a cancer-preventing diet. Genistein (an isoflavone phytonutrient in soy) is often a key focus in these cancer-prevention studies.
This soy isoflavone can increase activity of a tumor suppressor protein called p53. When p53 becomes more active, it can help trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells, and it also helps
trigger cell cycle arrest (helping stop ongoing cancer cell activity).
Genistein has also been shown to block the activity of protein kinases in a way that can help slow
tumor formation, especially in the case of breast and prostate cancer. Importantly, genistein is found in higher concentrations in fermented soy foods like tempeh (compared to non fermented soy foods like
soymilk, isolate soy protein, concentrated soy protein, textured soy protein—also known as TVP—and non-fermented tofu)even in the case of fermented soy foods and their higher concentration
of isoflavones like genistein, however, the potential cancer related benefits of soy are complicated
by other real-life factors. For example, the lifecycle and metabolic status of an individual seems
to make a potentially important difference in the anticancer benefits of soy (even fermented soy).
In studies on soy intake and breast cancer involving women who are pre menopausal and develop
tumors that are neither estrogen receptor positive nor progesterone receptor positive, soy and genistein intake (even from fermented soy foods) does not appear to offer risk reduction.
In several studies, large doses of purified soy isoflavones (obtained through dietary supplements) have been associated with increased risk of certain cancers, including breast cancer. This evidence should
not be surprising. Under certain metabolic circumstances, most antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor compounds can also act in a way that is prooxidant, proinflammatory, and protumor (often called a "proliferative" effect that is promoting of tumor growth).
We view intake of tempeh as very different from the intake of highly processed forms of soy,
or intake of dietary supplements containing purified soy components. And our recommendations
to you based on all of this information is as follows:
Second, we recommend that you choose Certified Organic whole food soybeans, rather than
highly processed versions like soy protein isolates and soy protein concentrates.
Especially good choices in this context would be whole food type soy products that have also
been fermented, like tempeh,agedmisso or fermented tofu). In general, it's worth remembering that
fermented soy foods or fermented tofu). have a better track record in cancer prevention than non-fermented soy products.
Fermented Soy Foods and Vitamin K
Fermentation of soy foods can often result in increased formation of vitamin K, especially when
bacteria called Bacillus subtilis participate in the fermentation process. When Bacillus bacteria are usedto help ferment tempeh, they are able to create a form of vitamin K2 called menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Studies have shown that higher levels of MK7 in the blood correspond to lower risk of hip fracture inolder Japanese women, and that higher MK7 also correspond to increased intake of soy foods
fermented with Bacillus bacteria.
During our planning period to start producing the best possible original OrganicTempeh in Thailand
was reinforced by the fact that we have not found nationally made tempeh, only one brand imported from Malaysia by "Healthy Mate," which appeared to have been fermented with the help of Bacillus bacteria as reflected in significant vitamin K content.
Nutrient databases that are widely used in the U.S. to document the nutritional content of food usually
report tempeh as providing no measurable amount of vitamin K in a standard serving, and since we make use of those nutrient databases in our own ranking system, we also show no measurable vitamin K
in our nutrient profile for Tempeh.
It may be possible for you to find some tempeh products that have been traditionally fermented and
that have been fermented with the help of Bacillus bacteria.
We here at "EFE" and "FORWARD" go even further to achieve and guarantee the optimal results in each and every available nutrients in Tempeh, that made of Tempeh this highly valuable ancient and now modern legendary base food in Indonesia, Asia, and soon all over the world.
The Legend says that Indonesian women reach menopause or climateriun age more than 10 years after the average worldwide age of around forty five, this is due to regular Tempeh consumption according to records and observation during the last couple of hundred years, now confirmed by modern science evidence studies.
Other Areas of Potential Health Benefi
There are several other areas of potential health benefit from tempeh that we believe deserve special mention.
First is prevention and treatment of obesity. In this context, it is some of the unique peptides (protein
breakdown products) in soy that have been associated with obesity prevention and treatment.
Some of these peptides have shown the ability to decrease the synthesis of SREBPs (sterol regulatory
element binding proteins), thereby helping decrease the synthesis of certain fatty acids as well as the depositing of these fatty acids in fat cells.
Since fermented soy foods like tempeh have increased concentrations of bioactive peptides
(versus non fermented soy foods), tempeh may turn out to be premier forms of soy with respect to
obesity management. However, it's important to remember that this fascinating research on soy and
obesity is still in a very early stage.
A second area of potential health benefit is prevention of type 2 diabetes. In multiple animal studies,
soy foods have been shown to lessen insulin resistance by increasing the synthesis of insulin receptors.
However, this increased formation of insulin receptors only appears to occur in the presence of other
dietary circumstances, like a moderate amount of polyunsaturated fat intake.
High levels of total soy intake (approximately 200 grams per day) have also been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, but only in Asian populations thus far.
We have yet to see specific studies onTempeh in this regard, but we look forward to more research in
Other areas of active research on soy and health include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), periodontal disease, and neurodegenerative disease. While we have yet to see studies on Tempeh in these areas, we expect to learn more about potential benefits of Tempeh.
Tempeh is fermented soy food that originated on the island of Java in Indonesia and is fermented with
the mold Rhizopus oligosporus. Fermentation of tempeh can involve a period of several days or longer
fermentation is usually carried out at temperatures of 85-90°F/29-32°C. Tempeh is usually purchased in a cake like form and can be sliced in a way that is similar
to tofu. However, Tempeh usually has a less watery texture than tofu, and in comparison to non-fermented tofu, a more distinct flavor as well. Steaming, baking, and frying are all popular ways of preparing tempeh in many countries. Tempeh is also commonly incorporated into stews and soups,
To understand more about tempeh's health benefits, it can be helpful to think not only about
fermentation of soybeans into tempeh, but about fermentation of foods in general.
Fermentation of Soy and Other Foods
Fermentation of food typically involves the breakdown of a food's carbohydrates into gasses, alcohols, and other molecules by micro-organisms. These micro-organisms include molds, yeasts, and bacteria.
Common examples of fermented food include beer and wine, cider, leavened bread, yogurt, and
sauerkraut. Interestingly, a relatively small number of micro organisms account for a very large
percent of commercially fermented foods, and an even smaller number account for most fermented soyfoods.
Fermented soy foods (including Tempeh and fermented Tofu, Misso) usually involve the activity of the molds Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor,
Koji, Actinomucor, and Neurospora; several species of the yeast Saccharomycces;
and numerous species of the bacteria Bacillus and Pediococcus.
While fermentation is usually defined in terms of the action of micro-organisms on a food's carbohydrates, many nutrients in food can be transformed during the process of fermentation.
These nutrients can include the food's proteins, fats. vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients. In fermented soy foods, for example, proteins are often made more digestible and assimilable through fermentation.
Minerals like calcium in soy foods can become more soluble and bioavailable through fermentation as
can the bioavailability of many phytonutrients, including isoflavones like genistein and daidzein.
In some cases, when fermentation changes the digestibility of protein in soy foods (and in other foods as well), smaller protein fragments are created (called peptides) that have unique health supportive properties of their own.
For example, one of the important storage proteins in soybeans is called conglycinin. Conglycinin and its fellow storage protein, glycinin, account for as much as 80% of the total proteins in soybeans.
During the process of fermentation, conglycinin in soy is often broken down into smaller peptides that
serve as antioxidants, boost immune function, and prevent excessive inflammatory response.
We believe that these whole food based forms of soy stand in clear distinction to highly processed
versions of soy like soy protein concentrate or soy protein isolate
At the same time, we also believe that the research support for the health benefits of soy foods is evenstronger for fermented versus non-fermented soy foods.
So we also encourage you to consider inclusion of fermented soy foods among
your whole soy choices. One great option here is Tempeh.
Tempeh is one of the few soy foods not originating in China, Japan, or Korea. Instead,Tempeh is
believed to have first been prepared on the island of Java in Indonesia, at least hundreds of years ago. However, less is known about the exact origins of Tempeh than other soy foods.
We do know that trade between Indonesia and China was well underway as early as 1000 AD and that soybeans may have been a part of those trading practices.
We also know that a fermentation process used for coconut was already being practiced in China and
that this process may have been adapted for use with soybeans. Whatever the exact origins of Tempeh, it would not have been uncommon for individuals in Java, China, Japan, or Korea to think
about food preparation in terms of fermentation.
Fermented foods had become a well-established part of Asian cuisines for several thousand years,
and it's probably most sensible to think about tempeh as a logical part of this fermented food tradition.
One resource that we encourage you to consider if you are interested in learning more about the
history of soy foods, including tempeh, is the SOYINFOCENTER. and the Books of Tofu and the book of Misso by Shurtleff and Akiko Ayoagi. ( Free download on the Internet)
This website provides several thousand pages on soy food history (and especially the history of
fermented soy foods) along with research references.
Most of the information above is extracted from these sources.
How to Select and Store
In a wellstocked natural foods supermarket, you'll find Tempeh in a variety of forms.
Some of these forms are pre-cooked and ready-to eat, indicating so on the package.
Other forms are not yet cooked and should be cooked before eating. You'll find plain soy tempeh that
has been made from soy and Rhizopus mold but without the addition of any grains, and you will also
find Tempeh made from soygrain combinations, especially soy rice.
The Tempeh and Misso you find in the supermarkets besides not being
from Certified Organic Origin have also have been enhanced its flavored with soy sauce, MSG for sure, and other seasonings.
Look for tempeh that is covered with a thin whitish bloom. While it may have a few black or grayish
spots, it should have no evidence of pink, yellow, or blue coloration as this indicates that it has become overly fermented. In general, choose Tempeh in which the soybeans and grains appear tightly bound.
Also choose Tempeh that tends to have a drier outside surface.
High-quality, plain soy tempeh often has an aroma that would best be described as mushroom-like.
Uncooked, refrigerated Tempeh can keep in the refrigerator for up to ten days. If you do not prepare
the whole package of uncooked tempeh at one time, wrap it well and place it back in the refrigerator.
Uncooked tempeh will also keep fresh for several months in the freezer. If you freezeTempeh and then unthaw it, you can keep the thawed Tempeh in your refrigerator for about 10 days.
Tips for Preparing and Cooking
Tips For Preparing Tempeh
In the grocery store you will often find tempeh that says "precooked" and "ready to eat" on the package.
Even though it's fine to eat thisTempeh "as is," you might still want to steam this tempeh for a several
minutes if you enjoy a tempeh that is a little softer.
Pre-cooked tempeh that is steamed just before its addition to a recipe can sometimes do a better job
soaking up recipe flavors as well.
SinceTempeh can be cut into slices or crumbled, you can control the degree to which you would like
your tempeh to be "recognized" in whatever dish you are preparing. Crumbled tempeh will usually be
much less "evident" as similar to ground meat it will shift into the background of the dish and feel much more like a textureonly component. Sliced tempeh will usually be much more "evident" and will feel like a more "featured" ingredient of the dish. Both sliced and crushed tempeh can still do a great job
soaking in flavors and sauces.
How to Enjoy
A Few Quick Serving Ideas for Tempeh
For a twist on the traditional Reuben sandwich, place broiled tempeh on a slice of whole grain bread,
layer with sauerkraut, top with cheese or nondairy "cheese" and then broil in oven for a few minutes
until the sandwich is hot and toasty. Top with your favourite sauce or picckles
A vegetarian option to spaghetti and meat sauce is spaghetti and tempeh sauce. Just substitute tempeh for ground beef in your favorite recipe.
Add extra flavor, texture and nutrition to chili by adding some tempeh.
Tempeh and Thyroid Health
Along with the increasing presence of soy foods (such as tempeh) in grocery stores and on restaurant menus has come increasing controversy over soybeans and thyroid health. We're not surprised to find strong conflicting opinions in this area because scientific research on thyroid and soy is both complicated and inconclusive. We have written an extensive review of what we know—and what we don't know—about this important issue at this point. You find the article Soy Food and Thyroid Health here;
Genetically Modified Soybeans
Conventionally grown soybeans—from which commercial non Organic Tempeh is made—is the food crop that is often grown from genetically modified seeds. For helpful information about genetically
modified foods—including our recommendations—please see our article, What Is Your Approach to Genetically Modified Foods?
A wide range of unique proteins, peptides, and phytonutrients contained in soy foods, including Tempeh
Examples are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (daidzein,genistein, malonylgenistin, and malonyldaidzin);
phenolic acids (caffeic, coumaric, ferulic, gallic and sinapic acids); phytoalexins (glyceollin I, glyceollin II and glyceollin III); phytosterols (beta-sitosterol, beta stigmasterol, campestrol); unique proteins and peptides (defensins, glycinin, conglycinin and lunacin); and saponins (soyasaponins from group A and group B, and soyasapogenols).
Tempeh is a very good source of manganese,copper, and fiber. It is also a good source of protein,
phosphorus, vitamin B2 and magnesium. In addition to providing the above nutrients, tempeh will provide many nutrients (including proteins) in a more digestible and absorbable form due to the process of fermentation.
Introduction to Food Rating System Chart
GI: very low
Nutrient Amount DRI/DV (%)Nutrient
Density World's Healthiest Foods Rating.
copper 0.61 mg 685.5 very good
manganese1.46 mg635.1 very good ]
fiber 12.00 g433.5very good
protein 20.63 g413.3 good
phosphorus 286.90 mg413.3 good
vitamin B20.40 mg312.5good
magnesium 87.32 mg211.7good
World's Healthiest Foods Rating
Rule excellent DRI/DV>=75% OR
Density>=7.6 AND DRI/DV>=10%very good DRI/DV>=50% OR
Density>=3.4 AND DRI/DV>=5%goodDRI/DV>=25% OR
Density>=1.5 AND DRI/DV>=2.5%
In-Depth Nutritional Profile
In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an in-depth nutritional profile for Tempeh. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients,
including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.
"Taste the difference"
(Note: "--" indicates data unavailable)4.00 oz
(113.40 g)GI: very lowBASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIESnutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)Protein20.63 g41Carbohydrates10.60 g5Fat - total12.90 g17Dietary Fiber12.00 g43Calories222.2612MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAILnutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)Carbohydrate:Starch-- gTotal Sugars-- gMonosaccharides-- gFructose-- gGlucose-- gGalactose-- gDisaccharides-- gLactose-- gMaltose-- gSucrose-- gSoluble Fiber-- gInsoluble Fiber-- gOther Carbohydrates-- gFat:Monounsaturated Fat4.25 gPolyunsaturated Fat2.99 gSaturated Fat3.86 gTrans Fat-- gCalories from Fat116.14Calories from Saturated Fat34.70Calories from Trans Fat--Cholesterol-- mgWater67.54 gMICRONUTRIENTSnutrientamountDRI/DV(%)VitaminsWater-Soluble VitaminsB-Complex Vitamins
Vitamin B10.06 mg5Vitamin B20.40 mg31Vitamin B32.42 mg15Vitamin B3 (Niacin Equivalents)2.42 mgVitamin B60.23 mg14Vitamin B120.16 mcg7Biotin-- mcg--Choline-- mg--Folate23.81 mcg6Folate (DFE)23.81 mcgFolate (food)23.81 mcgPantothenic Acid0.51 mg10Vitamin C-- mg--Fat-Soluble VitaminsVitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)Vitamin A International Units (IU)-- IUVitamin A mcg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)-- mcg (RAE)--Vitamin A mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)-- mcg (RE)Retinol mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)-- mcg (RE)Carotenoid mcg Retinol Equivalents (RE)-- mcg (RE)Alpha-Carotene-- mcgBeta-Carotene-- mcgBeta-Carotene Equivalents-- mcgCryptoxanthin-- mcgLutein and Zeaxanthin-- mcgLycopene-- mcgVitamin DVitamin D International Units (IU)0.00 IU0Vitamin D mcg0.00 mcgVitamin EVitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE)-- mg (ATE)--Vitamin E International Units (IU)-- IUVitamin E mg-- mgVitamin K-- mcg--MineralsnutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)Boron-- mcgCalcium108.86 mg11Chloride-- mgChromium-- mcg--Copper0.61 mg68Fluoride-- mg--Iodine-- mcg--Iron2.42 mg13Magnesium87.32 mg21Manganese1.46 mg63Molybdenum-- mcg--Phosphorus286.90 mg41Potassium454.73 mg10Selenium0.00 mcg0Sodium15.88 mg1Zinc1.78 mg
16 INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDSnutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)Omega-3 Fatty Acids0.14 g6Omega-6 Fatty Acids
2.86 gMonounsaturated Fats14:1 Myristoleic0.00 g15:1 Pentadecenoic0.00 g16:1 Palmitol0.11 g17:1 Heptadecenoic0.08 g18:1 Oleic3.94 g20:1 Eicosenoic0.11 g22:1 Erucic0.00 g24:1 Nervonic0.00 gPolyunsaturated Fatty Acids18:2 Linoleic2.86 g18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA)-- g18:3 Linolenic0.14 g18:4 Stearidonic0.00 g20:3 Eicosatrienoic0.00 g20:4 Arachidonic0.00 g20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)0.00 g22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA)0.00 g22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA)0.00 gSaturated Fatty Acids4:0 Butyric0.00 g6:0 Caproic0.00 g8:0 Caprylic0.00 g10:0 Capric0.00 g12:0 Lauric0.00 g14:0 Myristic0.06 g15:0 Pentadecanoic0.00 g16:0 Palmitic2.49 g17:0 Margaric0.06 g18:0 Stearic0.91 g20:0 Arachidic0.11 g22:0 Behenate0.23 g24:0 Lignoceric0.00 gINDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDSnutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)Alanine-- gArginine-- gAspartic Acid-- gCysteine-- gGlutamic Acid-- gGlycine-- gHistidine-- gIsoleucine-- gLeucine-- gLysine-- gMethionine-- gPhenylalanine-- gProline-- gSerine-- gThreonine-- gTryptophan-- gTyrosine-- gValine-- gOTHER COMPONENTSnutrientamountDRI/DV
(%)Ash1.73 gOrganic Acids (Total)-- gAcetic Acid-- gCitric Acid-- gLactic Acid-- gMalic Acid-- gTaurine-- gSugar Alcohols (Total)-- gGlycerol-- gInositol-- gMannitol-- gSorbitol-- gXylitol-- gArtificial Sweeteners (Total)-- mgAspartame-- mgSaccharin-- mgAlcohol0.00 gCaffeine0.00 mg
The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version 10.12.0, ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the 50,000+ food items in the master database and 163 nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation "--" to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the database.
Amadou I, Yong-Hui S, Sun J et al. Fermented Soybean Products: Some Methods, Antioxidants Compound Extraction and their Scavenging Activity. Asian Journal of Biochemistry Year: 2009 Vol: 4 Issue: 3 Pages/record No.: 68-76. 2009.
Hang M and Zhao XH. Fermentation Time and Extraction Solvents Influenced in vitro Antioxidant Property of Soluble Extracts of Mao-tofu Fermented with Mucor sp. Biotechnology. 2011;10(1): 60-69 . 2011.
Hara A, Sasazuki S, Inoue M et al. Isoflavone intake and risk of gastric cancer: a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Am J Clin Nutr January 2012, vol. 95, no. 1, pages 147-154. 2012.
Haron H, Ismail A, Shahar S et al. Apparent bioavailability of isoflavones in urinary excretions of postmenopausal Malay women consuming tempeh compared with milk. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Sep;62(6):642-50. Epub 2011 May 16. 2011.
Hidayat M, Sujatno M, Sutadipura N et al. Conglycinin Content Obtained from Two Soybean Varieties Using Different Preparation and Extraction Methods. Hayati Journal of Biosciences. 2011;18(1): 37-42 . 2011.
Ikeda Y, Iki M, Morita A et al. Intake of fermented soybeans, natto, is associated with reduced bone loss in postmenopausal women: Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Study. J Nutr. 2006 May;136(5):1323-8. 2006.
Oboh G. Coagulants Modulate the Antioxidant Properties and Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Tofu (Curdled Soymilk). Asian Journal of Biochemistry Year: 2006 Vol: 1 Issue: 1 Pages/record No.: 57-66. 2006.
Ollberding NJ, Lim U, Wilkens LR et al. Legume, Soy, Tofu, and Isoflavone Intake and Endometrial Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst (2011) doi: 10.1093/jnci/djr475. First published online: December 12, 2011. 2011.
Pan HC, Yang DY, Ho SP et al. Escalated regeneration in sciatic nerve crush injury by the combined therapy of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and fermented soybean extracts, Natto. Journal of Biomedical Science 2009, 16:75 (23 August 2009). 2009.
Soyinfo Center. A comprehensive history of soy. Online resource location: www.soyinfocenter.com. 2012; Lafayette, CA, USA. 2012.
Tong X, Li W and Qin LQ. [Meta-analysis of the relationship between soybean product consumption and gastric cancer]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Mar;44(3):215-20. 2010.
Zhang W, Tang FY, Yeo MC et al. . Fermentation of group B soyasaponins with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Journal of Food Biochemistry, published online, 12 December 2011: doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010.00524. 2011